Tag Archives: Oak

Black Walnut – Springfield, MO

BLACK WALNUT
Juglans nigra

Family

Juglandaceae (walnuts)

Description

A large tree with a straight trunk and rounded, open crown. The nuts, spicy odor, large feather-compound leaves, and chambered pith in the twigs help identify it.

Leaves alternate, compound, 1–2 feet long, with 11–23 leaflets. Leaflets 3–5 inches long, 1–2 inches wide, broadest below the middle, the end leaflet smaller than side ones or absent; margin toothed; upper surface yellow-green; lower surface paler, hairy.

Bark grayish-brown or black, grooves deep, ridges broad with sharp or rounded edges, roughly forming diamond-shaped patterns, chocolate-colored when cut.

Twigs stout, rigid, brown to gray-brown, hairy; end bud about ½ inch long; pith light brown, chambered when cut lengthwise.

Flowers April–May. Male flowers in catkins, female flowers in a short spike on the same tree.

Fruits September–October, usually single or in pairs. A green rounded husk, 1½–2½ inches across, covers the round, hard, bony, dark brown or black nut. The kernel is oily, sweet, and edible.

Similar species: Butternut, or white walnut (Juglans cinerea), is scattered and declining in the eastern two-thirds of Missouri, mostly in low and moist soils. It has rather cylindrical fruits, and the nut inside has 4 lengthwise ribs; leaf scars have the upper edge straight (not notched), bordered by a well-defined velvety ridge. The mild-tasting English (or Persian) walnut is the species J. regia. It is native to Eurasia and when cultivated in Missouri does not escape. The state of California grows nearly all of the US commercial supply of English walnuts. Walnuts are in the same family as hickories and pecans.

Key Identifiers

 

  • Leaves long, alternate, feather-compound
  • Leaflets 11–23, toothed
  • Fruits distinctive
  • Bark grayish, deeply grooved with rather diamond-shaped patterns, ridges broad
  • Twigs stout, with chambered pith
  • Distinctive spicy odor
Size

Height: to 90 feet.

Missouri is the world’s top producer of black walnuts, which are used in baking and confections, and even pickled whole! It would be eaten by more people it getting the nutmeats out of the nut was easier. Walnut is the finest wood in the world. In the past, warm brown hardwood was used lavishly in homes, barns, and fences. Today it’s used for furniture, veneer, and gunstocks.

The nuts are eaten by mice and squirrels. The leaves are eaten by larvae of luna moths, regal moths, and others. The presence of such caterpillars naturally attracts warblers and other insectivorous birds. Walnut trees produce a chemical, juglone, that stunts or kills other plants growing nearby.

Black walnut has been designated as Missouri’s official state tree nut. Most of the state’s large, old walnut trees were felled in previous decades for lumber and other uses, yet the superb wood from this species remains in high demand. Young landowners have been planting walnuts in hopes of harvesting them in future decades. Several serious pests may endanger the health of Missouri’s walnuts; educate yourself about thousand cankers disease (TCD), ambrosia beetles, walnut anthracnose, and other diseases, and never, ever transport firewood.

HABITAT AND CONSERVATION

Black walnut grows throughout Missouri in a variety of soils. It grows best on the deep, well-drained soils of north Missouri and on alluvial (river-deposited) soils in the south. Every farm in the state should grow some walnut trees. In addition to providing quality wood, the walnut’s nutmeats are a major industry in the state. Even the hard shells can be used as an abrasive and to make activated carbon.

It is a common misconception that tree services will pay the customer for removal of black walnut trees, due to their high-quality wood. However, this is not true. We at All About Trees will not pay to remove your black walnut tree.

Black Walnut. (n.d.). Retrieved October 10, 2017, from https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/black-walnut


Springfield, MO Tree Alert- Our Certified Arborists

To view a list of our Certified Arborists, click here!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417) 863-6214 or fill out a contact request form to schedule an appointment for an estimate.

Phone: (417) 863-6214
Address: 3427 W. Farm Road 146, Springfield, MO 65807
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]

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Springfield, MO Tree Alert – Japanese Beetles

 Springfield, MO Tree Alert- Japanese Beetles

Tree species affected: Japanese beetles are known to feed on over 300 plant species. Linden (basswood), elm, crabapple, sycamore (planetree), sassafras, plum, cherry, and bald cypress are commonly damaged, as well as grape and rose.

Concerns: Lacy, skeletonized leaves. Partial or entire defoliation.

Description: Japanese beetles feed on the upper surface of leaves, leaving behind veins. Damage is frequently seen near the top of the tree or plant first. These beetles often feed in groups.

Insecticides are not compatible with trying to maintain a pollinator-friendly yard and should never be used on flowering plants or trees that will attract bees and other pollinators.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the lifecycle of the Japanese beetle?

Japanese beetles spend most of their one-year lifecycle under-ground as a white, c-shaped grub. These grubs feed on grass roots and can damage turf if populations are high. Grubs pupate in late spring and emerge from the ground as adult beetles around mid-June in Missouri. These beetles congregate on host plants, particularly those in full sun. Japanese beetles congregate through a combination of pheromones released by females and floral scents emitted by the damaged host. After mating, each female beetle lays 40-60 eggs in the soil over the course of her 30-45 day lifespan. These eggs hatch into grubs in July and August. Most adult Japanese beetles are gone for the year by mid-August.

Will Japanese beetles kill my trees?

Healthy, established trees can typically tolerate a heavy amount of feeding damage. However, this damage is a source of stress for trees. You can help your trees by watering them 2-3 times per month during dry times to avoid additional stress from drought. A good rule of thumb is ten gallons of water per inch of a tree’s diameter.

Should I use a Japanese beetle trap?

Be cautious when using Japanese beetle traps as they are very effective at bringing beetles in from areas well outside of your yard. Traps don’t catch all the beetles they attract, so nearby plants may be heavily damaged. If you decide to use a trap, place it at least 100 feet away from plants you want to protect. Dispose of trapped beetles frequently by dropping them into a bucket of soapy water.

If I control the Japanese beetle grubs in my lawn, will I have fewer beetles next year?

Controlling Japanese beetle grubs in your lawn won’t significantly reduce the number of beetles you see next year. Japanese beetles are strong fliers and can continue to fly in from neighboring areas over a mile way. Grub control may have more of an impact if you live in a forested area where turf grass is uncommon.

How can I control Japanese beetles?

For light infestations on shrubs and young trees, handpicking is an effective method of control. Beetles are typically sluggish and easy to capture early in the morning. Shake stems and branches with Japanese beetles over a bucket of soapy water.

Several contact insecticides are available for control of Japanese beetle adults (e.g. acephate, carbaryl, cyfluthrin, permethrin); check the label to confirm Japanese beetles and your plant species are listed. These chemicals may need to be reapplied at labeled intervals, especially in hot or rainy weather. Organic products containing azadiractin and spinosad are effective deterrents for a few days. Neem oil may be useful in deterring beetles from feeding if used at the first sign of damage.

Systemic insecticides, such as those containing imidacloprid, can be applied as a soil drench to protect some types of trees from Japanese beetles (follow all label restrictions). However, this product would need to be applied in early June in order to be effective since it can take 4-6 weeks for a tree to translocate the chemical from soil to the leaves.

Due to impacts on pollinators, systemic insecticides should not be applied before or during the bloom period on any plant. In addition, use of many IMIDACLOPRID products (e.g. Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub Insect Control) is NOT ALLOWED on LINDEN (BASSWOOD), a common host tree of Japanese beetles. Product labels contain new restrictions due to frequent misuse and impacts on pollinators.

Are there any biological controls for Japanese beetles?

No biological controls are currently available for managing adult Japanese beetles. Two products are available for biological control of Japanese beetle grubs in the soil. Neither product is 100% effective.

  • Milky spore (milky disease bacteria) is a long-term control technique that can help reduce grub populations in 2-3 years. Introduce milky spore into several spots in your yard in a grid pattern. Once in the soil, the spores will be present for many years. Milky spore requires specific temperature and moisture conditions to infect grubs, so effectiveness varies.
  • Nematodes of the Heterorhabditis strains will attack grubs. Because soil moisture is critical for nematode survival, it can be difficult to maintain proper conditions for nematodes and avoid overwatering plants. Nematodes need to be applied every year up to three times during the grub stage.

What should I do next year to protect my trees?

Keep an eye out in mid-June for Japanese beetles. Handpick beetles off small or newly planted trees. Preventing early feeding damage can protect trees in the following weeks. If populations are too high to remove by hand, spray an insecticide labeled to control Japanese beetles on your particular tree species. Repeat, if needed, at labeled intervals.

For large established trees, help reduce stress caused by Japanese beetle feeding through good tree care practices: water trees 2-3 times per month during drought conditions, avoid wounding by mowers and weed trimmers, and, if used, keep mulch rings no deeper than 3”.

Do weather conditions impact Japanese beetle populations?

Drought conditions in July and August can lead to the death of many newly hatched grubs. During severe droughts, irrigated areas and some low-lying wet locations may be the only places that grubs survive. Harsh winter conditions can also be a limiting factor in Japanese beetle grub survival. Grubs are killed when soil temperatures reach 15°F or when soils remain near 32°F for two months, (snow cover can significantly insulate soils from frigid air). A cold winter without much snow could greatly reduce the following year’s adult beetle population.

Forest Health Program
Missouri Department of Conservation
To contact your local forester, see the local contact box athttp://mdc.mo.gov

Our Certified Arborists

To view a list of our Certified Arborists, click here!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417) 863-6214 or fill out a contact request form to schedule an appointment for an estimate.

Phone: (417) 863-6214
Address: 3427 W. Farm Road 146, Springfield, MO 65807
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]

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Oak Wilt

Oak Tree Alert – Watch for oak wilt symptoms now

Oak Tree Alert – Watch for oak wilt symptoms now!

Oak wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of oak trees in Missouri. Symptoms begin to appear in late June and early July. Look for wilting and rapid leaf drop beginning in the upper crown of red oak species like black, northern red, pin, scarlet, and shingle oak. While a single tree may be affected initially, eventually you may see a group of affected trees; perhaps a few died last year and symptoms are present on adjacent trees this year. Oak wilt is easily confused with oak decline, which is very common in Missouri. When oak decline is present, leaves often stay on the tree after turning brown, or the trees may die back over a period of years before death occurs.

Once an oak wilt-infected red oak tree shows symptoms, it cannot be saved. Fortunately, treatments can help protect nearby healthy oaks. Oak wilt confirmation through sample testing can help guide these management decisions. See plantclinic.missouri.edu for more information on sample testing provided by the University of Missouri Plant Diagnostic Clinic.

Learn more about oak wilt:  Oak Wilt Forest Health Alert.

Forest Health Program
Missouri Department of Conservation
To contact your local forester, see the local contact box athttp://mdc.mo.gov

Our Certified Arborists

To view a list of our Certified Arborist, click here!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417) 863-6214 or fill out a contact request form to schedule an appointment for an estimate.

Phone: (417) 863-6214
Address: 3427 W. Farm Road 146, Springfield, MO 65807
Email: [email protected] or [email protected]

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