Category Archives: Missouri Emerald Ash Borer

Dutch Elm Disease

What is the Cause of Dutch Elm Disease?

Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by an aggressive fungus (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) that kills elms regardless of their health. It is considered the most costly shade tree disease ever and will remain active in a community as long as there are susceptible trees. The fungus invades the water transporting vessels and produces toxins to which the tree reacts. In defense to the toxins, the tree produces gums and internal growths designed to block the advance of the fungus. The combination of the toxins and the defense mechanisms of the tree inhibit water flow to the crown, which causes wilting and tree death.

How Does Dutch Elm Disease Spread?

Female elm bark beetles lay their eggs beneath the bark of dead and dying elm trees. If the elm is infected with Dutch elm disease the newly hatched beetles will emerge from the tree carrying the deadly fungus on their bodies. The beetles fly to healthy trees and feed on its 2 – 4 year old branches, thereby spreading the disease.

Besides beetle transmission, Dutch elm disease may also be spread through grafted roots. When elms grow in proximity to each other, their roots can come into contact and graft together. This common root system provides the fungus with a pathway to spread through an entire stand of healthy elms very quickly.

What are the Symptoms of DED?

Dutch elm disease symptoms begin to develop 4 – 6 weeks after infection. The first noticeable symptom that results from the fungal occupation of the water-conducting vessels is wilting or “flagging” of one or more branches, usually starting at the branch tip. Leaves on infected branches turn dull green to yellow, curl, and become dry and brittle. As the infection spreads the wood beneath the bark displays brown discoloration.

What Can I do if My Tree is Already Infected?

Most infected elms cannot be saved. In rare cases, if the fungus has not moved into the root system, physically cutting out infected portions of the tree, with a process called tracing, can save the elm.

Sanitation is the most important tool for controlling Dutch elm disease on a community-wide basis. It involves the identification and removal of diseased elms. Such practices eliminate beetle breeding sites and reduce the number of disease-carrying beetles.

Root Grafts

Dutch elm disease can pass from infected trees into healthy trees through grafted roots. Macro-infusion of Arbotect does not prevent root graft infections. The only way to reliably prevent root graft transmission of the fungus is to physically sever the common root system.

How Can I Protect my Elm Tree?

The goal when protecting elms from the fungus is to evenly and completely distribute a fungicide chemical thorough the entire canopy of the tree.

  • To protect a tree from beetle-transmitted fungal infection, Arbotect fungicide must be evenly and completely distributed throughout the 2 – 4 year old branches.
  • The only way to get even distribution is by the tree injection method called macro-infusion. Macro-infusion injects a large volume of solution into the root flares of the tree. This solution is then transported throughout the canopy providing a protective fungicide barrier.
  • Arbortect fungicide does not protect elms from root graft infection. You need to physically server the root system from neighboring trees by trenching at least 36″ down.

Source: Rainbow Treecare Scientific Advancements, 2005.

Want to read more about tree diseases and pests? Click here to read our article on Emerald Ash Borer, an equally destructive scrouge to trees.  

All About Trees is caring for Springfield’s urban forest, one tree at a time. 

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Where to See Fall Color in Missouri

Predicting the peak of fall color can be difficult. Missouri is blessed with a great variety of trees, shrubs, and vines. Their leaves turn at different times, so Missourians enjoy a fall color season that may last four to six weeks. Sassafras, sumac, and Virginia creeper are some of the earliest to change, beginning in mid-September. By late September, black gum, bittersweet, and dogwood are turning.

The peak of fall color in Missouri is usually around mid-October. This is when maples, ashes, oaks, and hickories are at the height of their fall display. Normally by late October, the colors are fading and the leaves beginning to drop from the trees. Fall color is usually finished by the middle of November.

The progression of color change starts earliest in north Missouri and moves southward across the state. Generally, the color change is predictable, but it can vary from year to year. Much depends on the weather.

Where’s the Best Place?

You can enjoy Missouri’s fall color almost anywhere.

  • For spectacular vistas, choose routes along rivers with views of forested bluffs, and along ridges with sweeping scenes of forested landscapes. In particular, the James River has spectacular fall sights.
  • On a smaller scale, drive on back roads, hike, or take a float trip under a colorful forest canopy on a clear, blue-sky day. Visit MDC Conservation Areas and Missouri State Parks.
  • Even treeless areas, such as prairies and roadsides, display beautiful shades of gold, purple, olive, and auburn with autumn wildflowers, shrubs, and curing, rustling grasses.
  • If you can’t get out of town, enjoy places with mature trees, such as older neighborhoods, parks, and even cemeteries.

Find events on your route

The Missouri Division of Tourism’s online calendar is packed with events happening all across Missouri this fall. Find those along your preferred routes.


MDC Discover Nature. (2019). Fall Colors. [online] Available at: https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/fall-colors [Accessed 26 Sep. 2019].

All About Trees is caring for Springfield’s urban forest, one tree at a time. 

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Emerald Ash Borers

Emerald Ash Borers : Pest 101

Be on the lookout for emerald ash borers. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a serious threat to ash trees in Missouri. This invasive pest will eventually kill unprotected ash trees. Many trees can be saved with the careful use of systemic insecticides. However, not all ash trees should be treated, and for many locations the start of treatments should be delayed. This guide will assist you in making decisions about protecting your trees from this invasive pest. Find more information at eab.missouri.edu.

In the Ozarks, we are proud of our trees. But a small insect is putting our beautiful ash trees at risk. The emerald ash borer is an invasive pest that will eventually kill unprotected ash trees. Treating your tree early can help save it.

Here are a few signs to know if emerald ash borers have affected your tree:

  • D-shaped exit holes about 1/8″ wide.
  • Winding, s-shaped tunnels just under the bark.
  • New sprouts on the branches and lower trunk.
  • Increased woodpecker activity on the tree.
  • Sparse leaves and/or branches dying in the upper part of the tree.

To identify when is the best time to treat or cut your ash tree, check out this PDF from the Department of Conservation.

 

 


 

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Jumping Oak Gall

Jumping Oak Gall FOREST HEALTH ALERT From the Missouri Department of Conservation

Tree species affected: White oak (Quercus alba) primarily, and some other white oak group species.

Concerns: Leaves on entire crowns of white oak trees turning brown in late spring. In some areas, whole hillsides appear brown.

Description: High populations of a very tiny, native, stingless wasp (Neuroterus sp.) cause pinhead-size galls (abnormal plant growths) to form on the undersides of leaves. Each round, button -like gall contains one wasp larva. Starting at the margins, brown, scorch-like areas appear on leaves where many galls are present. In more severe cases, leaves curl up, turn black, and drop early from trees. Effects of the damage become noticeable in late spring or early summer and remain visible until fall.

Most galls drop from leaves in early summer. Brown pockmarks remain where galls had been attached. Fallen galls are sometimes observed to “jump” due to vigorous movements of larvae within, much like moth larvae of “Mexican jumping beans.” This behavior allows galls to fall deeper into grass and leaf litter where they are sheltered throughout the coming winter.

Many species of gall wasps have two generations per year. It is assumed that the jumping oak gall wasp in Missouri has a similar life history with one generation lasting only a few weeks in early spring and rarely being noticed. The second generation extends from spring through the following winter and causes most of the leaf damage. Outbreaks typically last for one or two years and then fade away as natural controls reduce gall wasp numbers again.

Similar Leaf Issues: In years with cool wet springs, fungal diseases can be abundant on trees and may also cause leaf browning. Anthracnose is common on white oak foliage in those conditions. Botryosphaeria twig canker causes leaves on infected small branches to wilt and turn brown, which results in “flagging” in the canopy during the summer. Typically, twig bark shrivels and turns brown where the canker occurs, near the junction with healthy tissue.

Recommendations: Galls and fungi that affect oak leaves rarely have a significant impact on tree health. Nearly all trees will recover, even if all leaves are brown. Controls are not warranted. By the time the damage is observed, any opportunity to treat has already passed for that year, and populations are likely to decline naturally. However, severe leaf damage stresses trees, particularly if most leaves on a tree are killed which results in a second flush of leaves emerging in summer. The best tactic is using good tree care practices that reduce stress (mulching, watering during drought, avoiding wounds due to lawnmowers and trimmers).

Questions? Contact your local forester with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Find contact information for your county and more at mdc.mo.gov.


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Treating Ash Trees To Prevent Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic beetle from Asia that was discovered (in North America) in the summer of 2002. The adult beetles nibble on ash foliage, causing little damage. However, the larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree’s ability to transport water and nutrients, eventually killing the tree.

The emerald ash borer most likely arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material carried in cargo ships or airplanes arriving from Asia, and has most likely spread by hitchhiking on firewood transported among homes and recreation areas in at least 34 states.

emerald ash borer

In addition to Missouri, the emerald ash borer has been found in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, as well as, the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec in Canada.

Since its discovery in the US, the emerald ash borer has:

  • Killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in at least 34 states.
  • Caused regulatory agencies to enforce quarantines and fines to prevent potentially infested ash trees, logs or firewood from moving out of areas where EAB occurs.
  • Cost municipalities, property owners, nursery operators and forest products industries millions of dollars.

Emerald Ash Borer. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://agriculture.mo.gov/plants/pests/emeraldash.php


Emerald Ash Borer. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://agriculture.mo.gov/plants/pests/emeraldash.php

What if you have an ash tree?

Take action before removal is your only option! If you have an ash tree, you have the choice to protect or remove your tree(s). We recommend that residents consider protecting large, well-placed, healthy private ash trees as part of an EAB treatment program.

Considerations for Treatment:

  • Tree size greater than 10” in diameter.
  • The Tree is not competing with other trees or infrastructure.
  • The Ash tree shows no more than 30% of canopy decline if an infestation is suspected.

Managing Ash Trees. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.rainbowtreecare.com/emerald-ash-borer/managing-ash-trees/


To better address situations such as these, All About Trees has created a Plant Health Care (PHC) & Integrated Pest Management Program.

Objectives of All About Trees Plant Health Care & Integrated Pest Management Program:

  • All About Trees is focused on appropriate care for trees and shrubs, using safe, effective, and well-timed visits and applications.
  • We only administer treatments as deemed necessary, and never try to just “make a sale” of pesticide applications. 
  • All About Trees uses the safest methods for application, using as much systemic products as possible, and never doing tree sprays over 25’ high to limit drift possibility.
  • Our Plant Health Care Arborists will diagnose insect and disease problems, as well as soil, moisture, and fertility issues.  We also recommend how and when a plant health issue warrants treatment.

Please give us a call if you’d like to be added to our calendar for a yearly maintenance check of your trees!

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Emerald Ash Borers

Missouri Emerald Ash Borer (EAB)

The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a serious threat to ash trees in Missouri. This invasive pest will eventually kill unprotected ash trees. Many trees can be saved with the careful use of systemic insecticides. However, not all ash trees should be treated, and for many locations the start of treatments should be delayed.


1. What is emerald ash borer (EAB)?
EAB is an exotic, invasive, wood-boring beetle that infests and
kills ash trees in forests and urban areas.

2. What does EAB look like?
The adult beetle is dark metallic green with a bullet shaped body
that is one-half inch long and one-eighth inch wide. EAB larvae
(immature stage) are flat, creamy-white grubs with distinct bellshaped
body segments. Adult beetles are usually seen from midMay
through July on or near ash trees; larvae are found under the
bark of ash trees during the remaining months of the year.

3. Where did EAB come from?
The native range of EAB is eastern Russia, northern China
and Korea.

4. How does EAB spread?
EAB adults generally fly less than a half mile to mate and lay eggs
on ash trees, making the natural spread of this pest relatively
slow. Humans, however, can easily move EAB long distances in
a short period of time. EAB can hitchhike under the bark of ash
firewood, ash nursery stock, and ash logs and lumber, emerging
from these materials to start an infestation in a new area.

5. When was EAB first discovered in the USA? How did it get there?
EAB was discovered infesting and killing ash trees in the Detroit,
Michigan area in 2002, but researchers estimate it may have been
in that area for ten years prior to the initial detection. EAB was
likely introduced to the US in ash wood used for packing and crating
goods imported from China.

6. Where and when was EAB found in Missouri? How did it get here?
EAB was detected in Missouri in July of 2008. It was found near
Lake Wappapello at the US Army Corps of Engineers’ Greenville
Recreation Area in Wayne County. EAB was likely introduced to
Missouri by a camper bringing infested ash firewood from another
state.

7. Where is EAB now?
Visit eab.missouri.edu to view a current map of Missouri
counties.

8. What is being done about EAB in Missouri?
Several state and federal agencies are responding to the EAB
threat. Field surveys are done annually to look for new EAB
infestations. A statewide quarantine has been put in place
to help slow the spread of EAB. The quarantine prohibits
movement of hardwood firewood, ash trees, untreated ash
material (chips, logs, etc.), and EAB itself from Missouri.
Information about how to respond to EAB and the risks of
firewood movement is being publicized to communities,
industries and the general public. Cost-share funds are
provided to communities to help them prepare for EAB’s arrival.
Stingless wasps that parasitize and kill EAB eggs and larvae
are being released at several locations to establish them as
biological controls to help reduce EAB populations.

9. How can I help slow the spread of EAB?
Don’t move firewood! Inform your friends and neighbors of
the risks of moving firewood. If EAB hasn’t been found in your
county, keep an eye out for it on ash trees and report any
possible sightings to officials. Once EAB is known to be in
your county, consult the EAB Management Guide for Missouri
Homeowners for advice on managing this destructive insect on
your ash trees.

10. Does EAB have any natural enemies?
In North America, EAB is frequently eaten by woodpeckers.
There are also a few species of tiny, stingless wasps that
parasitize EAB eggs and larvae. These wasps have been
released in a few locations where EAB has been detected
to help reduce EAB populations. For more information on
EAB biological control, visit agriculture.mo.gov/plants/pests/
emeraldash.php.

11. Where can I get more information?
Visit eab.missouri.edu or call the EAB Hotline at 1-866-716-
9974 for more information related to EAB in Missouri. Other
websites with valuable information include
emeraldashborer.info and dontmovefirewood.org.


Works Cited:

Extensiondata.missouri.edu. (2018). Emerald Ash Borer FAQ. [online] Available at: https://extensiondata.missouri.edu/Pub/docs/v00001/EABfaq.pdf?_ga=2.45824420.1413572983.1539713852-1962532674.1539713852 [Accessed 16 Oct. 2018].

Extension2.missouri.edu. (2018). Tree Pests: Emerald Ash Borer. [online] Available at: https://extension2.missouri.edu/v1 [Accessed 16 Oct. 2018].


Our Certified Arborists

To view a list of our Certified Arborists, click here!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417) 863-6214 or fill out a contact request form to schedule an appointment for an estimate.

Phone: (417) 863-6214
Address: 3427 W. Farm Road 146, Springfield, MO 65807
Email: [email protected]

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