Tag Archives: Tree Surgeon Springfield MO

Pest Watch: Japanese Beetles

japanese beetle

Japanese beetle life cycle. Credit: Rainbow Treecare Scientific Advancements

The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, has emerged to wreak havoc on your shade trees. Native to Japan, Japanese beetles are an invasive species that was first detected in the United States in 1916 (Rainbow Treecare, 2021). Due to its lack of predators in the US, it has been able to quickly spread and become rampant within this country.

japanese beetle

Close up of Japanese beetle. Credit: Arborjet.

You can identify the Japanese beetle based on its iridescent appearance, with a green head and copper wing coverings. It has small tufts of white hair along the outside of its wing coverings. It has a glossy appearance

The beetle feeds on over 400 species of shade trees and bushes (Rainbow Treecare, 2021). The beetle feeds by eating the leaf matter in between the leaf’s veins, leaving a skeleton appearance. If this happens to enough leaves, the beetles can easily kill your trees and shrubs, as the plant will no longer be able to photosynthesize. The beetles send out a signal to other beetles when they have found an acceptable plant host, sending more beetles into your yard.

japanese beetle damage

Japanese beetles feeding on leaf. Credit: The Tree Center

So how do you get rid of Japanese beetles? One effective solution is a combination of a soil injection as well as a foliar spray to take care of any live beetles currently feeding on the leaves. It is important to begin foliar sprays at the beginning of adult feeding on plant matter, otherwise, the infestation can grow out of hand as beetles send out signals that attract even more beetles. If you think you have a Japanese beetle infestation, please contact our office at 417-863-6214 and we can schedule an estimate for our Plant Healthcare technician to take a look at your trees and discuss your treatment options.

 

Sources:

“Japanese Beetle.” Arborjet, 23 July 2020, arborjet.com/problems_solutions/japanese-beetle/.

“Japanese Beetles Diagnostic Guide.” Rainbow Treecare Scientific Advancements, 2021, www.treecarescience.com/tree-problems/insects-mites/japanese-beetles-diagnostic-guide?utm_source=Rainbow&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=navigator&dm_i=41N9%2CEQRW%2C5LNQWP%2C1JTLZ%2C1.

Masons, Fergus. “How to Get Rid Of Japanese Beetles.” The Tree Center, 2 Mar. 2016, www.thetreecenter.com/how-to-get-rid-of-japanese-beetles/.

 

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alive stumps

Stumps Can Be Kept Alive by Other Trees

Once you reduce a tree down to a stump, it may seem like that is the end of the tree’s lifespan. However, this is not always the case for stumps. Sometimes, a tree can remain alive – with a little help from its neighbors.

Scientists recently found a kauri stump in New Zealand that is very much still alive. The stump, which is pictured above, was discovered while Sebastian Leuzinger was on a hike. Leuzinger noticed that this tree had live tissue, as opposed to the deadwood of a regular tree stump. Living stumps have been documented since 1833, but this is the first instance of this occurring (that we have found, at least) in the kauri tree (Ed Yong, The Atlantic).

This stump can only be kept alive one way: by exchanging nutrients and water with the trees surrounding it. The exchange of materials between trees is not a new phenomenon, trees have been found to use fungi to transfer nutrients from tree to tree. However, for this kauri stump to stay alive, it most definitely is connected to one or more trees via a root graft. In a root graft, the roots of two or more plants grow together and connect, allowing them to directly share resources without the help of fungi. Up to 150 species of trees are known to form root grafts (Kelly Mayes, Science).

Another thing that makes living stumps remarkable is the anatomy of the tree. How it is set up, the tree can only pull water up from its roots to its canopy. This action occurs as water evaporates off of the leaves, which then pulls up more water to take its place.

“The stump’s water flows at a fifth the speed of its neighbors’, but it does flow. The speed of that flow depends on what the surrounding trees are doing. If the neighbors’ sap flows faster, the stump’s sap flows slower. But if the neighbors reduce transpiration, whether at night or during heavy rain, the stump’s sap starts racing. This suggests that it isn’t just a passive part of its neighbors’ roots. Instead, it seemingly uses their downtime to gain more water” (Ed Yong, The Atlantic).

This is quite a remarkable find. While there is no evidence that all tree species can do this, and root grafting can only occur between two or more compatible species, this still has implications for the tree service business. So if you have a stump in your yard that looks exceptionally alive or that you notice has living tissue rather than exclusively deadwood, you might have a living stump on your hands! A living stump does not pose any danger to your yard if it is left alone, and in fact, damage can occur to the living trees if root separation is attempted.

If you would like to know more about our Stump Grinding services, click here!

Sources:

Mayes, Kelly. “Trees Share Water to Keep This Dying Stump Alive.” Science, 25 July 2019, www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/07/trees-share-water-keep-dying-stump-alive.

Yong, Ed. “The Stump That Didn’t Die.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 29 July 2019, www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/07/mystery-undead-tree-stump/594673/.

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Dutch Elm Disease

What is the Cause of Dutch Elm Disease?

Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by an aggressive fungus (Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) that kills elms regardless of their health. It is considered the most costly shade tree disease ever and will remain active in a community as long as there are susceptible trees. The fungus invades the water transporting vessels and produces toxins to which the tree reacts. In defense to the toxins, the tree produces gums and internal growths designed to block the advance of the fungus. The combination of the toxins and the defense mechanisms of the tree inhibit water flow to the crown, which causes wilting and tree death.

How Does Dutch Elm Disease Spread?

Female elm bark beetles lay their eggs beneath the bark of dead and dying elm trees. If the elm is infected with Dutch elm disease the newly hatched beetles will emerge from the tree carrying the deadly fungus on their bodies. The beetles fly to healthy trees and feed on its 2 – 4 year old branches, thereby spreading the disease.

Besides beetle transmission, Dutch elm disease may also be spread through grafted roots. When elms grow in proximity to each other, their roots can come into contact and graft together. This common root system provides the fungus with a pathway to spread through an entire stand of healthy elms very quickly.

What are the Symptoms of DED?

Dutch elm disease symptoms begin to develop 4 – 6 weeks after infection. The first noticeable symptom that results from the fungal occupation of the water-conducting vessels is wilting or “flagging” of one or more branches, usually starting at the branch tip. Leaves on infected branches turn dull green to yellow, curl, and become dry and brittle. As the infection spreads the wood beneath the bark displays brown discoloration.

What Can I do if My Tree is Already Infected?

Most infected elms cannot be saved. In rare cases, if the fungus has not moved into the root system, physically cutting out infected portions of the tree, with a process called tracing, can save the elm.

Sanitation is the most important tool for controlling Dutch elm disease on a community-wide basis. It involves the identification and removal of diseased elms. Such practices eliminate beetle breeding sites and reduce the number of disease-carrying beetles.

Root Grafts

Dutch elm disease can pass from infected trees into healthy trees through grafted roots. Macro-infusion of Arbotect does not prevent root graft infections. The only way to reliably prevent root graft transmission of the fungus is to physically sever the common root system.

How Can I Protect my Elm Tree?

The goal when protecting elms from the fungus is to evenly and completely distribute a fungicide chemical thorough the entire canopy of the tree.

  • To protect a tree from beetle-transmitted fungal infection, Arbotect fungicide must be evenly and completely distributed throughout the 2 – 4 year old branches.
  • The only way to get even distribution is by the tree injection method called macro-infusion. Macro-infusion injects a large volume of solution into the root flares of the tree. This solution is then transported throughout the canopy providing a protective fungicide barrier.
  • Arbortect fungicide does not protect elms from root graft infection. You need to physically server the root system from neighboring trees by trenching at least 36″ down.

Source: Rainbow Treecare Scientific Advancements, 2005.

Want to read more about tree diseases and pests? Click here to read our article on Emerald Ash Borer, an equally destructive scrouge to trees.  

All About Trees is caring for Springfield’s urban forest, one tree at a time. 

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Proper Pruning in Late Winter

Proper pruning in late winter leads to strong, lush trees and shrubs in the springtime

Pruning cuts are made slightly beyond the branch collar.

Pruning cuts are made slightly beyond the branch collar. COURTESY OF JOHNSON COUNTY K-STATE RESEARCH & EXTENSION

BY DENNIS PATTON for Kansas City Star (MO), FEBRUARY 12, 2020 03:42 PM

Does pruning strike more fear in your heart than a trip to the doctor? Pruning sounds complicated, but once you understand the basic guidelines, the rest falls into place.

PROPER PRUNING IN LATE WINTER – KNOW WHERE TO MAKE THE CUT

Most people hesitate knowing where to make the cut. Discerning “where” does not mean which specific limb needs to be removed. It means where precisely on the branch the cut is to be made.

Every pruning cut should be made at the point where there is another branch, fork, crotch angle or new bud forming. Making the cut at a growth point reduces the chance of decay and uncontrolled growth. Directing new growth is the goal of pruning, not merely pruning to remove growth.

Pruning to this juncture removes tall overgrown limbs, reduces plant height and thins out the plant. When extreme weather impacts our neighborhoods, pruning will reduce the weight of snow, ice and wind, which can lead to branch failure.

The energy that once supported the removed limb is now channeled into the growth of the remaining limbs. It is important to understand the concept of directional pruning.

The direction of the remaining limb or bud will point to where the growth will head. Attempting to control height? Prune to a side-pointing limb. Need to reduce spread? Prune to an upward pointing limb. Tired of the low-hanging limb hitting you in the face? Find a branch growing upward. See how this works?

Removing a limb back to another branch thins out a tree or shrub for better light penetration and less wind resistance. Not only does this apply to shade trees, but flowering and fruit trees as well. More sunlight penetrating the plant will lead to more flowering and fruit development.

HOW TO MAKE THE CUT

Now that you are confident in knowing where to make the cut, the next step is to do it properly. Pruning is an injury to the plant or tree, wounding the wood. The goal is to quickly heal the wound with a correctly made cut.

Pruning cuts are made slightly beyond the branch collar, where a layer of cambium growth has the ability of rapidly sealing off the cut. The branch collar is the raised, rough growth of bark tissue at the crotch angle. Remember, the cut is always made back to a branch angle.

Try to avoid cutting to the outside of the branch collar as it will leave a slight bump. We want to steer clear of creating a stub, a longer piece of wood sticking out. Stubs do not heal and lead to decay or uncontrolled growth. Cutting too close results in a flush cut, which removes the bark collar, leaving a bigger wound. A larger wound is slower to seal and increases the chance of decay.

Tree pruning is done in late winter before new growth. The lack of foliage reveals problem areas, making it easier to know which limbs to remove. Spring is a time of rapid growth for quick recovery. Now go forth and prune. I have confidence in your abilities.

Dennis Patton is a horticulture agent with Kansas State University Research and Extension. Got a question for him or other university extension experts? Email them to [email protected].

https://www.kansascity.com/living/liv-columns-blogs/kc-gardens/article240239351.html


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Anatomy of a Tree

Leaves

Leaves carry out photosynthesis, making food for the tree and releasing oxygen into the air. And this tells us much about their shapes. For example, the narrow needles of a Douglas fir can expose as much as three acres of chlorophyll surface to the sun.

The lobes, leaflets, and jagged edges of many broad leaves have their uses, too. They help evaporate the water used in food-building, reduce wind resistance and even provide “drip tips” to shed rain that, left standing, could decay the leaf.

Branches and Twigs

Branches and twigs grow out of the tree trunk and serve as support structures for leaves, flowers, and fruit. Branches are the main “limbs” of the tree, whereas the twigs are smaller and come off of the branches. They also transport materials between the trunk and the leaves.

Trunk

The trunk of a tree is made up of five different layers.

Anatomy of a Tree
  1. The outer bark is the tree’s protection from the outside world. Continually renewed from within, it helps keep out moisture in the rain and prevents the tree from losing moisture when the air is dry. It insulates against cold and heat and wards off insect enemies.
  2. The inner bark, or “phloem,” is the pipeline through which food is passed to the rest of the tree. It lives for only a short time then dies and turns to cork to become part of the protective outer bark.
  3. The cambium cell layer is the growing part of the trunk. It annually produces new bark and new wood in response to hormones that pass down through the phloem with food from the leaves. These hormones, called “auxins,” stimulate growth in cells. Auxins are produced by leaf buds at the ends of branches as soon as they start growing in the spring.
  4. Sapwood is the tree’s pipeline for water moving up to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood. As newer rings of sapwood are laid down, inner cells lose their vitality and turn to heartwood.
  5. Heartwood is the central, supporting pillar of the tree. Although dead, it will not decay or lose strength while the outer layers are intact. A composite of hollow, needlelike cellulose fibers bound together by a chemical glue called lignin, it is in many ways as strong as steel. Set vertically, a 1″ x 2″ cross-section that is 12″ long can support twenty tons!

Roots

roots

Contrary to popular belief, tree roots are typically found in the top three feet of the soil. As well, they expand well beyond the dripline, often occupying an area two to four times the size of the tree crown.

A tree’s root system works to absorb water and minerals from the soil, anchor the tree to the ground, and store food reserves for the winter. It is made up of two kinds of roots: large perennial roots and smaller, short-lived feeder roots.

Want to read more of our articles? Click here to read about the benefits of trees!


“Anatomy of a Tree.” Advanced Search-The Tree Guide at Arborday.org, The Arbor Day Foundation, www.arborday.org/trees/TreeGuide/anatomy.cfm.


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Deer Damage

Deer Damage to Trees and Landscape

One of the most frustrating things to deal with this time of year is having a deer snack on your beloved plants! Even if you are the type of person to tolerate deer damage because you love them, beware!  Deer are creatures of habit.  Once they feel safe and find a tasty snack, they will visit regularly.

An increase in deer populations and a decrease in their natural habitat have set up a situation in which your favorite landscapes become alternative food sources for deer.  As winter approaches and food sources become scarce, feeding on leaves, stems, and buds of plants becomes more apparent.  Male deer also cause damage by rubbing their antlers along the trunks of trees, stripping off the bark. Deer should be discouraged immediately.  Trees and shrubs can suffer permanent damage.  Deer damage is usually identified by the torn or jagged appearance of branches

deer damage to tree

There are four ways to discourage deer: Fencing, repellents, predators, and deer-resistant plants. 

Fencing requires you to enclose your entire yard with a fence at least six feet tall. This is not necessarily an aesthetically pleasing option and also not cost effective. In some cases, you can put barrier fencing around these individual plants. While it is still unsightly, protecting a tree while it is young is important. 

Homemade and commercial repellents are common control methods to discourage deer, but their effectiveness varies. Snow and rainfall wash them away, so frequent applications are needed. Also, if food sources are scarce, deer may simply ignore the repellents, despite the taste or odor.

As far as predators go, a  noisy dog is a good deer deterrent.  If you don’t have a dog, you can hang shiny tape from branches, or place inflated balls, and other moving objects in the yard to startle deer with sudden movement.  You’ll have to rotate these frequently, however, or deer will soon realize that they are not in danger from these objects.

 If they are hungry enough and food is scarce enough, deer will eat almost anything.  However, there are a number of plants that deer don’t find particularly palatable.  Using these plants in your landscape is often the most cost-effective, least time-consuming, and most aesthetically pleasing solution.

Below is a list of trees and shrubs not favored by deer.  However, the resistance of any plant species may change due to environmental factors.

Always check to make sure that the plant is not invasive before you plant it! 

TREES

Common Name                                                      Scientific Name

American chestnut                                             Castanea dentata

Bald-cypress                                                     Taxodium distichum

Beech                                                                Fagus spp.

Birch                                                                  Betula spp.

Catalpa                                                              Catalpa spp.

Dawn redwood                                                  Metasequoia glyptostroboides

Giant arborvitae                                               Thuja plicata

Ginkgo                                                              Ginkgo biloba

Ironwood                                                           Ostrya virginiana

Japanese tree lilac                                            Syringa reticulata

Larch                                                                 Larix spp.

Honey-locust                                                    Gleditsia triacanthos

Redbud                                                             Cercis canadensis

Sassafras                                                          Sassafras albidum

Smoketree                                                         Cotinus spp.

Sourwood                                                          Oxydendrum arboreum

Sweetgum                                                         Liquidambar styraciflua

Spruce                                                              Picea spp.

Sycamore                                                         Platanus occidentalis

Tulip tree                                                          Liriodendron tulipifera

 

Shrubs

Common Name                                                       Scientific Name

Boxwood                                                              Buxus spp.

Leatherwood                                                       Dirca palustris

Coralberry/Snowberry                                         Symphoricarpos spp.

       * Poisonous, do not eat!

Forsythia                                                             Forsythia spp.

Japanese kerria                                                  Kerria japonica

Common lilac                                                     Syringa vulgaris

Oregon grape-holly                                            Mahonia aquifolium

Smokebush                                                       Cotinus spp

Spicebush                                                         Lindera benzoin                     

Spirea                                                               Spiraea spp.

Carolina allspice                                              Calycanthus floridus

Witch hazel                                                      Hamamelis spp.

 

Ground Covers

Common Name                                                      Scientific Name

Barren strawberry                                              Waldsteinia fragarioides

Bergenia                                                            Bergenia cordifolia

Bugleweed                                                         Ajuga reptans

Bunchberry                                                       Cornus canadensis

Catmint                                                              Nepeta x faassenii

Epimedium                                                        Epimedium spp.

Ferns                                                                 Numerous species

Hens and chicks                                               Sempervivum spp.

Juniper                                                               Juniperus spp.

Lady’s mantle                                                    Alchemilla mollis

Lamium                                                              Lamium spp.

Lily turf                                                              Liriope spicata

Lungwort                                                           Pulmonaria spp.

Mosses                                                              ————–

Pachysandra                                                      Pachysandra spp.

Potentilla                                                            Potentilla spp

Sedum                                                                Sedum spp.

Snow-in-summer                                                Cerastium tomentosum

Sweet woodruff                                                   Galium odoratum

Vinca                                                                   Vinca minor

Violet                                                                    Viola spp.

Wild ginger                                                           Asarum canadense

Wild strawberry                                                    Fragaria spp

 

Perennial Vines

Common Name                                                      Scientific Name

Akebia                                                                Akebia quinata

Bittersweet                                                         Celastrus scandens

Clematis                                                             Clematis spp.                          

Crimson glory vine                                              Vitis coignetiae

Silver lace vine                                                  Polygonum aubertii

Trumpet creeper                                               Campsis radicans

Virginia creeper                                                Parthenocissus quinquefolia

 

Hardy Bulbs

Common Name                                                      Scientific Name

Autumn crocus                                                  Colchicum autumnalis

Crown imperial                                                  Fritillaria imperialis

Daffodil                                                               Narcissus spp.

Grape hyacinth                                                  Muscari spp.

Glory-of-the-snow                                             Chionodoxa luciliae

Ornamental onion                                              Allium spp.

Siberian scilla                                                   Scilla sibirica

Snowdrops                                                       Galanthus nivalis

Winter aconite                                                  Eranthis hyemalis

 

Annuals and Biennials

Common Name                                                      Scientific Name

Ageratum                                                           Ageratum houstonianum

Alyssum                                                             Lobularia maritima

Candytuft                                                          Iberis sempervirens

Forget-me-not                                                   Myosotis spp.

Four o’clock                                                       Mirabilis jalapa

Foxglove                                                           Digitalis purpurea

Heliotrope                                                         Heliotropium arborescens

Larkspur                                                            Delphinium spp.

Lobelia                                                               Lobelia spp.

Marigold                                                            Tagetes spp.

Mexican sunflower                                          Tithonia rotundifolia

Mimulus                                                             Mimulus spp.

Nasturtium                                                        Tropaeolum majus

Petunia                                                              Petunia spp.

Poppy                                                                Papaver spp.

Salvia                                                                Salvia spp.

Snapdragon                                                      Antirrhinum majus

Stocks                                                               Matthiola spp.

Sunflower                                                         Helianthus annuus

Sweet William                                                  Dianthus spp.

 

Hardy Perennials

Common Name                                                    Scientific Name

Monkshood                                                       Aconitum spp.

Anemone                                                           Anemone spp.

Artemisia                                                           Artemisia spp.

Astilbe                                                                Astilbe spp.

Bee Balm                                                           Monarda spp.

Bergenia                                                             Bergenia cordifolia

Black-eyed Susan                                              Rudbeckia hirta

Butterfly weed                                                   Asclepias tuberosa

Columbine                                                         Aquilegia spp.

Coreopsis                                                          Coreopsis spp.

Cranesbill                                                          Geranium spp.

Fleabane daisy                                                  Erigeron x hybridus

Foam flower                                                      Tiarella cordifolia

Gentian                                                             Gentiana spp.

Geum                                                                Geum spp.

Goldenrod                                                         Solidago spp.

Hellebore                                                           Helleborus nigra

Hens & chicks                                                   Sempervivum spp.

Hibiscus                                                             Hibiscus spp.

Iris                                                                      Iris spp.

Jacob’s ladder                                                   Polemonium caeruleum

Rose campion                                                   Lychnis coronaria

Marsh marigold                                                Caltha palustris

Meadow rue                                                     Thalictrum spp.

Meadowsweet                                                  Filipendula spp.

Peony                                                                Paeonia spp.

Phlox                                                                 Phlox divaricata

Pinks                                                                 Dianthus spp.

Purple coneflower                                             Echinacea purpurea

Rockcress                                                         Arabis caucasica

Russian sage                                                   Perovskia atriplicifolia

Salvia                                                               Salvia spp.

Sedum                                                              Sedum spp.

Shasta daisy                                                     Chrysanthemum

Snakeroot                                                         Eupatorium rugosum

Sneezeweed                                                    Helenium autumnale

Snow-in-summer                                             Cerastium tomentosum

Speedwell                                                        Veronica spp.

Toadflax                                                            Linaria spp.

Valerian                                                            Valeriana officinalis

Violet                                                                 Viola spp.

Yarrow                                                               Achillea spp.

 

 

Herbs

Common Name                                                       Scientific Name

Angelica                                                             Angelica archangelica

Artemisia                                                           Artemisia vulargis

Basil                                                                   Ocimum basilicum

Borage                                                               Borago officinalis

Catmint                                                              Nepeta x faassenii

Chamomile                                                        Matricaria spp.

Chives                                                               Allium schoenoprasum

Comfrey                                                            Symphytum x rubrum

Dill                                                                      Anethum graveolens

Fennel                                                               Foeniculum vulgare

Feverfew                                                           Tanacetum parthenium

Germander                                                      Teucrium chamaedrys

Hyssop                                                              Hyssopus officinalis

Lamb’s ears                                                      Stachys byzantina

Lavender                                                          Lavandula angustifolia

Lemon balm                                                    Melissa officinalis

Mint                                                                  Mentha spp.                                       

Mullein                                                             Verbascum spp.

Oregano                                                           Origanum vulgare

Parsley                                                             Petroselinum spp.

Rosemary                                                        Rosmarinus officinalis

Rue                                                                   Ruta graveolens

Sage                                                                 Salvia officinalis

Savory                                                              Satureja montana

Tansy                                                                Tanacetum coccineum

Thyme                                                              Thymus spp.


Works Cited: 
Plants not favored by deer. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2019, from https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-and-plant-advice/horticulture-care/plants-not-favored-deer.

Click here to view our Certified Arborists in Springfield MO!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417)863-6214 to schedule an estimate. Business hours are Monday-Friday 8:00 am – 4:00 pm.

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Seasonal needle drop

Seasonal Needle Drop in Trees

We’ve noticed an increase in calls concerning yellowing needles in customer’s evergreens, especially White Pines. However, the “problem” is simply seasonal needle drop in trees. This is a normal and natural process in evergreen trees. Every year, evergreens experience a seasonal needle drop that is a normal part of the plant’s cycle. Older needles on the inside of evergreen trees are shed each fall after they turn yellow, brown, or reddish-tan in color. Sometimes this natural process is very subtle and goes unnoticed because only the innermost needles area affected. The change can be gradual, or, with some species, quite rapid. Seasonal needle drop in trees can cause concern to homeowners who are not familiar with this natural occurrence.

White pines show the most dramatic needle drop change! Their annual loss of needles can be especially alarming, as the number of yellow needles outnumbers the tree’s green growth. This can be very worrying to a tree owner! Typically, white pines will retain needles for three years, but in autumn, 2-or-3-year-old needles will change color and drop, leaving only the current season’s growth still attached.  

So if you are seeing your evergreen trees drop yellow needles, this is part of their natural process. However, if you are seeing widespread decay within your tree, then please call the office to schedule an estimate at the phone number listed below. We will be more than happy to take a look at your trees to ensure their health and wellbeing. 

To learn more specifics on seasonal needle drop, please visit https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-and-plant-advice/horticulture-care/seasonal-needle-drop

 

Click here to view our Certified Arborists in Springfield MO!

Please call the office of All About Trees at (417)863-6214 to schedule an estimate. Business hours are Monday-Friday 8:00 am – 4:00 pm. If we miss your call, please leave us a detailed voicemail message with your name, address, phone number, email, and your tree concerns. 

Source

“Seasonal Needle Drop.” Seasonal Needle Drop | The Morton Arboretum, www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-and-plant-advice/horticulture-care/seasonal-needle-drop#:~:text=Every%20year%2C%20evergreens%20experience%20a,part%20of%20the%20plant’s%20cycle.&text=Many%20evergreen%20needles%2C%20as%20they,with%20some%20species%2C%20quite%20rapid.

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Arborist pruning a tree

Mature Tree Pruning

Mature tree pruning removes dead and dying branches to maintain plant health and safety

All About Trees is a full-service tree care company, and one of our services is the pruning of mature trees. Thinning and raising are two types of tree pruning that should be performed periodically. It works to improve the form and shape of the plant, to eliminate interference with objects and structures, and to compensate for structural weaknesses. Thinning is the removal of live branches to reduce density. Research shows that thinning significantly reduces wind resistance and subsequent storm damage. This leads to healthier trees less prone to breakage, which will lead to a longer-lasting tree.

The pruning of lower branches, known as raising, can be used to increase the amount of light to turfgrass and ground covers beneath the crown of a tree. This will allow homeowners to improve the health of other plants within their yards, and improve tree health. In evergreen trees experiencing fungal issues, a small crown raise can be used to increase the airflow under the tree to reduce fungus. This also allows the tree limbs to be lifted off the ground, making the direct spread of fungus more difficult.

All About Trees arborists are trained to evaluate the condition of your trees and determine the type(s) of pruning required. We aim to balance your goals and those of managing plant health and safety. If you would like an estimate to have your trees pruned, please call the office at 417-863-6214. Our office hours are Monday-Friday, 8:00 am – 4:00 pm. If you miss us, please leave us a detailed voicemail message with your name, address, phone number, email, and tree concerns.

To learn more about the services we offer, please go to our Services page!

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Jumping Oak Gall

Jumping Oak Gall FOREST HEALTH ALERT From the Missouri Department of Conservation

Tree species affected: White oak (Quercus alba) primarily, and some other white oak group species.

Concerns: Leaves on entire crowns of white oak trees turning brown in late spring. In some areas, whole hillsides appear brown.

Description: High populations of a very tiny, native, stingless wasp (Neuroterus sp.) cause pinhead-size galls (abnormal plant growths) to form on the undersides of leaves. Each round, button -like gall contains one wasp larva. Starting at the margins, brown, scorch-like areas appear on leaves where many galls are present. In more severe cases, leaves curl up, turn black, and drop early from trees. Effects of the damage become noticeable in late spring or early summer and remain visible until fall.

Most galls drop from leaves in early summer. Brown pockmarks remain where galls had been attached. Fallen galls are sometimes observed to “jump” due to vigorous movements of larvae within, much like moth larvae of “Mexican jumping beans.” This behavior allows galls to fall deeper into grass and leaf litter where they are sheltered throughout the coming winter.

Many species of gall wasps have two generations per year. It is assumed that the jumping oak gall wasp in Missouri has a similar life history with one generation lasting only a few weeks in early spring and rarely being noticed. The second generation extends from spring through the following winter and causes most of the leaf damage. Outbreaks typically last for one or two years and then fade away as natural controls reduce gall wasp numbers again.

Similar Leaf Issues: In years with cool wet springs, fungal diseases can be abundant on trees and may also cause leaf browning. Anthracnose is common on white oak foliage in those conditions. Botryosphaeria twig canker causes leaves on infected small branches to wilt and turn brown, which results in “flagging” in the canopy during the summer. Typically, twig bark shrivels and turns brown where the canker occurs, near the junction with healthy tissue.

Recommendations: Galls and fungi that affect oak leaves rarely have a significant impact on tree health. Nearly all trees will recover, even if all leaves are brown. Controls are not warranted. By the time the damage is observed, any opportunity to treat has already passed for that year, and populations are likely to decline naturally. However, severe leaf damage stresses trees, particularly if most leaves on a tree are killed which results in a second flush of leaves emerging in summer. The best tactic is using good tree care practices that reduce stress (mulching, watering during drought, avoiding wounds due to lawnmowers and trimmers).

Questions? Contact your local forester with the Missouri Department of Conservation. Find contact information for your county and more at mdc.mo.gov.


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Please give us a call if you’d like to be added to our calendar for a yearly maintenance check of your trees!

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Treating Ash Trees To Prevent Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic beetle from Asia that was discovered (in North America) in the summer of 2002. The adult beetles nibble on ash foliage, causing little damage. However, the larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree’s ability to transport water and nutrients, eventually killing the tree.

The emerald ash borer most likely arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material carried in cargo ships or airplanes arriving from Asia, and has most likely spread by hitchhiking on firewood transported among homes and recreation areas in at least 34 states.

emerald ash borer

In addition to Missouri, the emerald ash borer has been found in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, as well as, the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec in Canada.

Since its discovery in the US, the emerald ash borer has:

  • Killed hundreds of millions of ash trees in at least 34 states.
  • Caused regulatory agencies to enforce quarantines and fines to prevent potentially infested ash trees, logs or firewood from moving out of areas where EAB occurs.
  • Cost municipalities, property owners, nursery operators and forest products industries millions of dollars.

Emerald Ash Borer. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://agriculture.mo.gov/plants/pests/emeraldash.php


Emerald Ash Borer. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://agriculture.mo.gov/plants/pests/emeraldash.php

What if you have an ash tree?

Take action before removal is your only option! If you have an ash tree, you have the choice to protect or remove your tree(s). We recommend that residents consider protecting large, well-placed, healthy private ash trees as part of an EAB treatment program.

Considerations for Treatment:

  • Tree size greater than 10” in diameter.
  • The Tree is not competing with other trees or infrastructure.
  • The Ash tree shows no more than 30% of canopy decline if an infestation is suspected.

Managing Ash Trees. (n.d.). Retrieved May 22, 2019, from https://www.rainbowtreecare.com/emerald-ash-borer/managing-ash-trees/


To better address situations such as these, All About Trees has created a Plant Health Care (PHC) & Integrated Pest Management Program.

Objectives of All About Trees Plant Health Care & Integrated Pest Management Program:

  • All About Trees is focused on appropriate care for trees and shrubs, using safe, effective, and well-timed visits and applications.
  • We only administer treatments as deemed necessary, and never try to just “make a sale” of pesticide applications. 
  • All About Trees uses the safest methods for application, using as much systemic products as possible, and never doing tree sprays over 25’ high to limit drift possibility.
  • Our Plant Health Care Arborists will diagnose insect and disease problems, as well as soil, moisture, and fertility issues.  We also recommend how and when a plant health issue warrants treatment.

Please give us a call if you’d like to be added to our calendar for a yearly maintenance check of your trees!

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